Plant Root Hair Growth in Response to Hormones

Dejian ZHANG, Chunyan LIU, Yujie YANG, Qiangsheng WU, Yeyun LI


Plant root hair is tubular projections from the root epidermis. Its can increase root surface area, which is very important for nutrients and water uptake as well as interaction with soil microorganisms. In this short review, we discussed the effects of hormones (auxin, ethylene, jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, strigolactones, and brassinosteroids) on root hair growth. It was highlight the interaction between auxin and ethylene on root hair growth. Furthermore, the mechanisms of jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, strigolactone and brassinosteroids on root hair growth may through auxin or ethylene signaling pathway partly. In future, more genes relating to root hair growth needed clone and elucidate their roles, as well as undertaking reverse genetics and mutant complementation studies to add the current knowledge of the signaling networks, which are involved in root hair growth that regulated by hormones.


auxin; brassinosteroids; ethylene; jasmonic acid; methyl jasmonate; root hair; strigolactones

Full Text:



Bruex A, Kainkaryam RM, Wieckowski Y, Kang YH, Bernhardt C, Xia Y, ... Schiefelbein J (2012). A gene regulatory network for root epidermis cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genetics 8:e1002446.

Cao X, Chen CL, Zhang DJ, Shu B, Xiao J, Xia RX (2013). Influence of nutrient deficiency on root architecture and root hair morphology of trifoliata orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) seedlings under sand culture. Scientia Horticulturae 162:100-105.

Carol RJ, Dolan L (2002). Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs. Philosophical Transactions Biological Sciences 357:815-821.

Carol RJ, Dolan L (2006). The role of reactive oxygen species in cell growth: lessons from root hairs. Journal of Experimental Botany 57:1829-1834.

Clowes FAL (2000). Pattern in root meristem development in angiosperms. New Phytologist 146:83-94.

Cristina MD, Sessa G, Dolan L, Linstead P, Baima S, Ruberti I, Morelli G (1996). The Arabidopsis ATHB10 (GLABRA2) is a HD-ZIP protein required for repression of root hair development. Plant Journal 10:393-402.

Dolan L (2017). Root hair development in grasses and cereals (Poaceae). Current Opinion in Genetics Development 45:76-81.

Dolan L, Costa S (2001). Evolution and genetics of root hair stripes in the root epidermis. Journal of Experimental Botany 52 (Suppl. 1):413-417.

Galway ME, Heckman JWJ, Schiefelbein JW (1997). Growth and ultrastructure of Arabidopsis root hairs: the rhd3 mutation alters vacuole enlargement and tip growth. Planta 201:209-218.

Ganguly A, Lee SH, Cho M, Lee OR, Yoo H, Cho HT (2010). Differential auxin-transporting activities of PIN-FORMED proteins in Arabidopsis root hair cells. Plant Physiology 153:1046-1061.

Hardtke CS, Dorcey E, Osmont KS, Sibout R (2007). Phytohormone collaboration: zooming in on auxin-brassinosteroid interactions. Trends in Cell Biology 17:485-492.

Jones AR, Kramer EM, Knox K, Swarup R, Bennett MJ, Lazarus CM, ... Grierson CS (2009). Auxin transport through non-hair cells sustains root hair development. Nature Cell Biology 11:78-84.

Kapulnik Y, Delaux PM, Resnick N, Mayzlish-Gati E, Wininger S, Bhattacharya C, ... Koltai H (2011). Strigolactones affect lateral root formation and root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Planta 233:209-216.

Kim DW, Lee SH, Choi SB, Won SK, Heo YK, Cho M, ... Cho HT (2006a). Functional conservation of a root hair cell-specific cis-element in angiosperms with different root hair distribution patterns. Plant Cell 18:2958-2970.

Kim H, Park PJ, Hwang HJ, Lee SY, Oh MH, Kim SG (2006b). Brassinosteroid signals control expression of the AXR3/IAA17 gene in the cross-talk point with auxin in root development. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 70:768-773.

Kim CM, Dolan L (2011). Root hair development involves asymmetric cell division in Brachypodium distachyon and symmetric division in Oryza sativa. New Phytologist 192:601-610.

Knox K, Grierson CS, Leyser O (2003). AXR3 and SHY2 interact to regulate root hair development. Development 130:5769-5777.

Koltai H, Dor E, Hershenhorn J, Joel DM, Weininger S, Lekalla S, ... Kapulnik Y (2010). Strigolactones' effect on root growth and root hair elongation may be mediated by Auxin-efflux carriers. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 29:129-136.

Leblanc A, Renault H, Lecourt J, Etienne P, Deleu C, Deunff EL (2008). Elongation changes of exploratory and root hair systems induced by aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine affect nitrate uptake and BnNrt2.1 and BnNrt1.1 transporter gene expression in oilseed rape. Plant Signaling & Behavior 146(4):1928-1940.

Libault M, Brechenmacher L, Cheng J, Xu D, Stacey G (2010). Root hair systems biology. Trends Plant Science 15:641-650.

Liu CY, Srivastava AK, Zhang DJ, Zou YN, Wu QS (2016). Exogenous phytohormones and mycorrhizas modulate root hair configuration in trifoliate orange. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 44(2):548-556.

Liu CY, Wang P, Zhang DJ, Zou YN, Kuča K, Wu QS (2018a). Mycorrhiza-induced change in root hair growth is associated with IAA accumulation and expression of EXPs, in trifoliate orange under two P levels. Scientia Horticulturae 234:227-235.

Liu CY, Zhang F, Zhang DJ, Srivastava AK, Wu QS, Zou YN (2018b). Mycorrhiza stimulates root hair growth and IAA synthesis and transport in trifoliate orange under drought stress. Scientific Reports 8:1978.

Masucci JD, Rerie WG, Foreman DR, Zhang M, Galway ME, Marks MD, Schiefelbein JW (1996). The homeobox gene GLABRA2 is required for position-dependent cell differentiation in the root epidermis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 122:1253-1260.

Masucci JD, Schiefelbein JW (1996). Hormones act downstream of TTG and GL2 to promote root hair outgrowth during epidermis development in the Arabidopsis root. Plant Cell 8:1505-1517.

Mayzlish-Gati E, De-Cuyper C, Goormachtig S, Beeckman T, Vuylsteke M, Brewer PB, ... Koltai H (2012). Strigolactones are involved in root response to low phosphate conditions in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 160:1329-1341.

Michael G (2001). The control of root hair formation: suggested mechanisms. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 164:111-119.

Mouchel CF, Briggs GC, Hardtke CS (2004). Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis identifies BREVIS RADIX, a novel regulator of cell proliferation and elongation in the root. Genes Development 18:700-714.

Mouchel CF, Osmont KS, Hardtke CS (2006). BRX mediates feedback between brassinosteroid levels and auxin signalling in root growth. Nature 443:458-461.

Muday GK, Rahman A, Binder BM (2012). Auxin and ethylene: collaborators or competitors. Trends in Plant Science 17:181-195.

Nestler J, Liu S, Wen TJ, Paschold A, Marcon C, Tang HM, ... Hochholdinger F (2014). Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. Plant Journal 79:729-740.

Nielsen E (2009). Plant cell wall biogenesis during tip growth in root hair cells. Root Hairs 12:85-102.

Pitts RJ, Cernac A, Estelle M (1998). Auxin and ethylene promote root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant Journal 16:553-560.

Rahman A, Amakawa T, Goto N, Tsurumi S (2001). Auxin is a positive regulator for ethylene-mediated response in the growth of Arabidopsis roots. Plant and Cell Physiology 42:301-307.

Rahman A, Hosokawa S, Oono Y, Amakawa T, Goto N, Tsurumi S (2002). Auxin and ethylene response interactions during Arabidopsis root hair development dissected by auxin influx modulators. Plant Physiology 130:1908-1917.

Růžička R, Ljung K, Vanneste S, Podhorská R, Beeckman T, Friml J, Benková E (2007). Ethylene regulates root growth through effects on auxin biosynthesisand transport-dependent auxin distribution. Plant Cell 19:2197-2212.

Savage NS, Walker T, Wieckowski Y, Schiefelbein J, Dolan L, Monk NA (2008). A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis. PLoS Biology 6:e235.

Schellmann S, Schnittger A, Kirik V, Wada T, Okada K, Beermann A, ... Hülskamp M (2002). TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE mediate lateral inhibition during trichome and root hair patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBO Journal 21:5036-5046.

Vincent C, Rowland D, Na C, Schaffer B (2017). A high-throughput method to quantify root hair area in digital images taken in situ. Plant and Soil 412:61-80.

Wada T, Tachibana T, Shimura Y, Okada K (1997). Epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis is determined by a Myb homolog, CPC. Science 227:1113-1116.

Walker AR, Davison PA, Bolognesi-Winfield AC, James CM, Srinivasan N, Blundell TL, ... Gray JC (1999). The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell 11(7):1337-1350.

Waters MT, Gutjahr C, Bennett T, Nelson DC (2017). Strigolactone signaling and evolution. Annu. Rev. Plant Biology 68:291-322.

Xie X, Yoneyama K, Yoneyama K (2010). The strigolactone story. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48:93-117.

Zhang DJ, Xia RX, Cao X, Shu B, Chen CL (2013). Root hair development of Poncirus trifoliata grown in different growth cultures and treated with 3-indolebutyric acid and ethephon. Scientia Horticulturae 160:389-397.

Zhang DJ, Xia RX, Cao X (2016). Ethylene modulates root hair development in trifoliate orange through auxin-signaling pathway. Scientia Horticulturae 213:252-259.

Zhang DJ, Yang YJ, Liu CY, Zhang F, Hu W, Gong SB, Wu QS (2018). Auxin modulates root hair growth through its signaling pathway in citrus. Scientia Horticulturae 236:73-78.

Zheng Y, Zhu Z (2016). Relaying the ethylene signal: new roles for EIN2. Trends in Plant Science 21:2-4.

Zhu C, Gan L, Shen Z, Xia K (2006). Interactions between jasmonates and ethylene in the regulation of root hair development in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany 57:1299-1308.

Zhu Y, Rong L, Luo Q, Wang B, Zhou N, Yang Y, ... Dong A (2017). The histone chaperone NRP1 interacts with WEREWOLF to activate GLABRA2 in Arabidopsis root hair development. Plant Cell 29:260-276.


June 1, 2018: Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca in Scopus ElsevierCiteScore 2017=0.78,Horticulture; Agronomy and Crop Science; Plant Science