Assessment of in vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Capacities of Medlar (Mespilus germanica)

  • Sebnem Selen ISBILIR Trakya University, Science Faculty, 22030, Edirne
  • Sevilay Inal KABALA Kirklareli University, Vocational School of Health Services, 39060, Kirklareli
  • Hulya YAGAR Trakya University, Science Faculty, 22030, Edirne
Keywords: amylase inhibition, DPPH scavenging, glucosidase inhibition, medlar leaf, phenolic content


The objective of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory effect of different parts of medlar including fruit, leaf and flower bud by using various in vitro methods, and also determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content in the samples. Ethanol extracts of medlar parts were prepared and their antioxidant activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) scavenging and β-carotene bleaching methods. The leaf extract showed the strongest antioxidant activity. DPPHradical scavenging activity was in the order of BHA > leaf > bud > fruit. This ordering was the same for β-carotene bleaching activity, tocopherol > leaf > bud > fruit. The highest total phenolic (60.3 ± 1.69 mg GAE g-1 extract) and flavonoid (14.77 ± 1.15 mg QE g-1 extract) content were determined in leaf extract. For possible antidiabetic effects of extracts, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were investigated, the bud extract showed the highest inhibition activities among the all extracts.


Metrics Loading ...


Alhadramy MS (2016). Diabetes and oral therapies: a review of oral therapies for diabetes mellitus. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 11(4):317-329.

Apak R, Gorinstein S, Bohm V, Schaich KM, Ozyurek M, Guclu K (2013). Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure and Applied Chemistry 85(5):957-998.

Apostolidis E, Kwon YI, Shetty K (2007). Inhibitory potential of herb, fruit, and fungal-enriched cheese against key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 8:46-54.

Arituluk ZC, Ezer N (2012). Halk arasinda diyabete karsi kullanilan bitkiler (Türkiye)-II [The plants used against Diabetes Mellitus in folkmedicine (Turkey)-II]. Hacettepe University - Journal of Pharmacy Faculty 32(2):179-208.

Bachhawat JA, Shihabudeen MS, Thirumurugan K (2011). Screening of fifteen Indian Ayurvedic plants for alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity and enzyme kinetics. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4:267-274.

Baytop T (1999). Turkiye’de bitkiler ile tedavi, gecmiste ve bugun [Curing with Turkish plants in the past and today]. Istanbul: Capa Nobel Medical Books.

Bibalani GH, Sayadmahaleh FM (2012). Medicinal benefits and usage of medlar (Mespilus germanica) in Gilan Province (Roudsar District), Iran. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(7):1155-1159.

Blois MS (1958). Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26:1199-1200.

Chaudhury A, Duvoor C, Reddy Dendi VS, Kraleti S, Chada A, … Mirza W (2017). Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: Implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Frontiers in Endocrinology 8(6).

Cheng AYY, Fantus IG (2005). Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2:213-226.

De Sales PM, De Souza PM, Simeoni LA, Magalhães PDO, Silveira D (2012). a-amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 1:141-183.

El Gharras H (2009). Polyphenols: food sources, properties and applications – A review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 44:2512-2518.

Ercisli S, Sengul M, Yildiz H, Sener D, Duralija B, Voca S, Dujmovic Purgar D (2012). Phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics of medlar fruits (Mespilus germanica L.). Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 85:86-90.

Gharaghani A, Solhjoo S, Oraguzie N (2016). A review of genetic resources of pome fruits in Iran. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 63:151-172.

Glew RH, Ayaz FA, Sanz C, VanderJagt DJ, Huang HS, Chuang LT, Strnad M (2003). Changes in sugars, organic acids and amino acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) during fruit development and maturation. Food Chemistry 83:363-369.

Gruz J, Ayaz FA, Torun H, Strnad M (2011). Phenolic acid content and radical scavenging activity of extracts from medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit at different stages of ripening. Food Chemistry 124:271-277.

Gulcin I, Topal F, Oztürk Sarikaya SB, Bursal E, Bilsel G, Goren AC (2011). Polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of medlar (Mespilus germanica L.). Records of Natural Products 5(3):158-174.

Halliwell B (1996). Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annual Review of Nutrition 16:33-50.

Horszwald A, Julien H, Andlauer W (2013). Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes. Food Chemistry 141:2858-2863.

Katekhaye SD, Nagmoti DM (2013). a-Glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities of Pithecellobium dulce bark and leaves. Phytopharmacology 4(1):123-130.

Kumar V, Jat RK (2017). Antioxidant activity of different extracts of various parts (Leaves, Stem and Root) of Achyranthes aspera. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(6):1862-1865.

Lordan S, Smyth JT, Soler-Vila A, Stanton C, Ross PR (2013). The a-amylase and a-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts. Food Chemistry 141:2170-2176.

Mahdi-Pour B, Jothy SL, Latha LY, Chen Y, Sasidharan S (2012). Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2(12):960-965.

Mattill HA (1947). Antioxidants. Annual Reviews-Biochemistry 16:177-192.

Mayur B, Sandesh S, Shruti S, Sung-Yum S (2010). Antioxidant and a-glucosidase inhibitory properties of Carpesium abrotanoides L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(15):1547-1553.

Miller HE (1971). A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidants. Journal of American Oil Chemical Society 48:91-97.

Mohamed EAH, Siddiqui MJA, Ang LF, Sadikun A, Chan SH, Tan SC, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF (2012). Potent a-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory activities of standardized 50% ethanolic extracts and sinensetin from Orthosiphon stamineus Benthas anti-diabetic mechanism. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12:176-182.

Moyo M, Ndhlala AR, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2010). Phenolic composition, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Sclerocarya birrea and Harpephyllum caffrum (Anacardiaceae) extracts. Food Chemistry 123:69-76.

Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Ebrahimzadeh MA, Asgarirad H (2011). The antioxidant activity of wild medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) fruit, stem bark and leaf. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(2):283-289.

Nimse SB, Pal D (2015). Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Advances 5:27986-28006.

Oboh G, Agunloye OM, Adefegha SA, Akinyemi AJ, Ademiluyi AO (2015). Caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (in vitro): A comparative study. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology 26(2):165-170.

Orak HH, Yagar H, Isbilir SS, Demirci AS, Gümüs T, Ekinci N (2011). Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) leaf. Food Science and Biotechnology 20(5):1249-1256.

Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, Brighenti F (2003). Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Nutrient Requirements 133:2812-2819.

Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C (2008). Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. International Journal of Biomedical Science 4(2):89-96.

Pradeep MP, Sreerama NY (2018). Phenolic antioxidants of foxtail and little millet cultivars and their inhibitory effects on a-amylase and a-glucosidase activities. Food Chemistry 247:46-55.

Rop O, Sochor J, Jurikova T, Zitka O, Skutkova, H, Mlcek J, … Kizek R (2011). Effect of five different stages of ripening on chemical compounds in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.). Molecules 16:74-91.

Salihoglu EM, Akaydin G, Caliskan-Can E, Yardim-Akaydin S (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of various herbal folk evaluation medicine. FABAD Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 35:59-67.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1998). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299:152-178.

Stankovic MS, Niciforovic N, Mihailovic V, Topuzovic M, Solujic S (2012). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and flavonoid concentrations of different plant parts of Teucrium polium L. subsp. Polium. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 81(2):117-122.

Tan Y, Chang SKC, Zhang Y (2017). Comparison of a-amylase, a-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activity of the phenolic substances in two black legumes of different genera. Food Chemistry 214:259-268.

Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin TD, Mazur M, Telser J (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 39(1):44-84.

Van de Laar FA, Lucassen PL, Akkermans RP, Van de Lisdonk EH, Rutten GE, Van Weel C (2005). Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 Diabetes mellitus (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database System Review 18(2):CD003639.

Vaya J, Aviram M (2001). Nutritional antioxidants: Mechanisms of action, analyses of activities and medical applications. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents 1:99-117.

Young IS, Woodside JV (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease. Journal of Clinical Pathology 54:176-186.

Zamora R, Hidalgo FJ (2016). The triple defensive barrier of phenolic compounds against the lipid oxidation-induced damage in food products. Trends in Food Science & Technology 54:165-174.

How to Cite
ISBILIR, S. S., KABALA, S. I., & YAGAR, H. (2018). Assessment of in vitro Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Capacities of Medlar (Mespilus germanica). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(2), 384-389.
Research Articles