Some Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Wild Grown Caucasian Whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) Genotypes from Northeastern Turkey
Some important morphological such as fruit weight, fruit external color, fruit shape, the number of berry per cluster, cluster color, plant crown habit, harvest date and biochemical characteristics including sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of thirteen wild grown Caucasian whortleberry sampled from Coruh valley, in northeastern Turkey, were determined. Antioxidant capacity was measured as FRAP assay (ferric reducing antioxidant power). Significantly differences were found among genotypes for most of the selected morphological and biochemical features. The genotypes had in general black fruit color and round shape. Harvest date varied from 2 August to 12 August. Fruit weight ranged from 0.37 to 1.08 g. Genotypes had only fructose and glucose in their fruits as sugars. Citric acid was dominant organic acids and was found between 8.87 and 11.20 g per kg of fresh fruits and followed by tartaric acid (2.85-3.30 g/kg). Fruits of genotypes exhibited very high total phenolic content, which ranged from 3740 to 5541 µg per g on a fresh weight basis. Total anthocyanin contents were between 81 and 172 µg of delphinidin-3-glucoside equivalent in per g fresh fruit indicating great diversity.
Akbulut M, Baykal H, Savsatli Y (2013). Investigation on phenological, pomological and agronomical properties of different blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and selected Caucasian whortleberry types (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) at ecological conditions in Sutluce village of Rize. Agricultural Science Journal 6(2):49-54.
Bartolome AP, Ruperez P, Fuster C (1995). Pineapple fruit: Morphological characteristics, chemical composition and sensory analysis of Red Spanish and Smooth Cayenne cultivars. Food Chemistry 53:75-79.
Baytop T (1999). Therapy with medicinal plants in Turkey (Past and Present), 2nd edition. Nobel Medicine Publications, Istanbul, pp 118-119.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘antioxidant power’: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry 239:70-76.
Camara MM, Diez C, TorijaME, Cano MP (1994). HPLC determination of organic acids in pineapple juices and nectars. European Food Research and Technology 198:52-56.
Capocasa F, Scalzo J, Mezzetti B, Battino M (2008). Combining quality and antioxidant attributes in the strawberry: The role of genotype. Food Chemistry 111:872-878.
Celik H, Koca I (2013). Pomological and chemical properties of some Caucasian whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) grown in Güneyse-Rize, Turkey. Proceedings of International Caucasian Forestry Symposium, 24-26 October, pp 464-471.
Coppola ED, Starr MS (1986). Liquid chromatographic determination of major organic acids in apple juice and cranberry juice cocktail. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists 69:594-597.
Ercisli S, Orhan E, Esitken A, Yildirim N, Agar G (2008a). Relationships among some cornelian cherry genotypes (Cornus mas L.) based on RAPD analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 55:613-618.
Ercisli S, Akbulut M, Ozdemir O, Sengul M, Orhan E (2008b). Phenolic and antioxidant diversity among persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L.) genotypes in Turkey. International Journal Food Science and Nutrition 59:477-482.
Ercisli S, Tosun M, Karlidag H, Dzubur A, Hadziabulic S, Aliman Y (2012a). Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from Northeastern Turkey. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 67:271-276.
Ercisli S, Sayinci B, Kara M, Ozturk I, Yildiz C (2012b). Determination of size and shape features of walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars using image processing. Scientia Horticulturae 133:47-55.
Giovanelli G, Buratti S (2009). Comparison of polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of wild Italian blueberries and some cultivated varieties. Food Chemistry 112:903-908.
Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE (2001). Anthocyanins. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry, unit F1.2.1-13. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Guan Y, Peace C, Rudell D, Verma, Evans K (2015). QTLs detected for individual sugars and soluble solids content in apple. Molecular Breeding 35:1-13.
Islam A, Celik H, Serdar U (2009). Evaluation of Vaccinium arctostaphylos selections from the Artvin and Trabzon provinces of Turkey. Acta Horticulturae 810:129-132.
Landete JM (2012). Updated knowledge about polyphenols: Functions, bioavailability, metabolism, and health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52:936-948.
Latti AK, Kainulainen PS, Ayaz SH, Ayaz FA, Riihinen KR (2009). Characterization of anthocyanins in Caucasian blueberries (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) native to Turkey. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 57:5244-5249.
Milivojevic J, Slatnar A, Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Stampar F, Nikolic M, Veberic R (2012). The influence of early yield on the accumulation of major taste and health-related compounds in black and red currant cultivars (Ribes spp.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60:2682-2691.
Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E (1996). Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fitoterapia 67:3-28.
Moyer RA, Hummer KE, Finn CE, Frei B,Wrolstad RW (2002). Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: Vaccinium, Rubus and Ribes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50:519-525.
Nickavar B, Amin G (2004). Anthocyanins from Vaccinium arctostaphylos berries. Pharmaceutical Biology 42:289-291.
Ozgen M, Celik H, Saracoglu O (2014). Less known Vaccinium: antioxidant and chemical properties of selected Caucasian whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos) fruits native to black sea region of Turkey. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus 13(2):59-66.
Ozturk HA, Yarilgac T, Guler SK, Karakaya M, Celik SM, Karakaya O, Ozturk B (2016). The effect of cold storage on the bioactive components and physical propert?es of Caucasian whortleberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.). A preliminary study. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus 15(2):77-93.
Paredes-Lopez O, Cervantes-Ceja MK, Vigna- Perez M, Hernandez-Perez T (2010). Berries: improving human health and healthy aging and promoting quality life – a review. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 65:299-308.
Rodriguez GR, Munos S, Anderson C, Sim SC, Michel A, Causse M, … van der Knaap E (2011). Distribution of SUN, OVATE, LC, and FAS in the tomato germplasm and the relationship to fruit shape diversity. Plant Physiology 156:275-285.
Shui G, Leong SL (2002). Separation and determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in fruit juices and drinks by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 977:89-96.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic–phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16:144-158.
Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50:7449-7454.
Veberic R, Jakopic J, Stampar F, Schmitzer V (2009). European elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) rich in sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins and selected polyphenols. Food Chemistry 114:511-515.
Wrolstad RE (1981). Use of sugar, sorbitol and nonvolatile acid profile in determining the authenticity of fruit juice concentrates. Proceedings of the Symposium on Technological Problems of Fruit Juice Concentrates, March 19-20, 1981. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp 27-39.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.