Genetic Study of Native Grapevine Varieties of Northern, Western and Central Greece with the Use of Ampelographic and Molecular Methods
The aim of this study was the identification and discrimination of 49 grapevine varieties that are cultivated in northern, western and central Greece with the use of the ampelographic description and the molecular method RAPD. The grapevine varieties were located in their cultivation centers and the studied samples were collected from productive vineyards of these regions. For the ampelographic description, 22 ampelographic characters were used following a list of descriptors developed by the International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV), while for the molecular analysis 8 of the most polymorphic primers were used. The results showed that: (a) there is high degree of genetic heterogeneity among most of the varieties studied, (b) grapevine varieties ‘Xinomavro’ and ‘Zalovitiko’ exhibited identity with both methods used, therefore the latter constitutes a synonym/clone of the former, (c) high degree of genetic similarity was recorded between cv ‘Stavroto’ and ‘Abelakiotiko’, a result enhancing the view that they constitute biotypes/clones of an original/parent variety and originated through the accumulation of mutations, (d) a previous hypothesis is confirmed. This hypothesis states that in the vineyards of northern Greece, different varieties of Vitis vinifera L. as well as hybrids (direct producers) were imported. Names/synonyms were given to these imported varieties and hybrids related to their place of origin or the morphological traits of the grape/berries implying identity among them (‘Mavroudi’, ‘Voulgariko’, ‘Voulgaroudia’, ‘Vapsa’ etc.), while they are different varieties, (e) the combination of the ampelographic description and the molecular method RAPD is very effective in the identification and discrimination of grapevine cultivars.
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