Cucurbita maxima Pumpkin Seed Oil: from the Chemical Properties to the Different Extracting Techniques
Pumpkin seed oils are rich in bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, sterols, β-carotene, and lutein that have, along with some fatty acids, high nutritional value factors. In addition, it has so far been proven that these compounds have a positive effect on human health. The present study mainly aimed at evaluating the chemical composition and the bioactive compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil of the ‘Béjaoui’ Tunisian cultivar using both cold pressing and solvent extraction methods. The seed oils contained substantial amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic and linoleic acids, with values ranging respectively from 28.19% for cold pressed pumpkin seed oil to 30.56% for pumpkin seed oil extracted by pentane and from 43.86% for pumpkin seed oil extracted by pentane to 46.67% for cold pressed pumpkin seed oil of the total amount of fatty acids. Investigations of different seed oils revealed that extraction techniques had significant effects on the antioxidant activity and the γ-tocopherol. Cold pressed pumpkin seed oil revealed the highest γ-tocopherol content (599.33 mg kg-1) and the highest oxidative stability (3.84 h). However, the chloroform/methanol extracted pumpkin seed oil, which is rich in total phenolics (54.41 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent kg-1), was a more effective scavenger of DPPH radicals (250 µmoles Trolox kg-1) than the poor phenolic pumpkin seed oils extracted by hexane and pentane (110 µmoles Trolox kg-1 vs 100 µmoles Trolox kg-1). Based on its unique seed oil features, cold press extracted pumpkin seed may add great value to product innovation in the industrial, nutritional, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical fields.
AOCS (1989). Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 4th Ed. Firestone D. AOCS, Champaign, USA.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel - Wissenschaft und Technologie 28(1):25-30.
Castillo-Munoz N, Gomez-Alonso S, Garcia-Romero E, Victoria Gomez M, Velders AH, Hermosín-Gutiérrez I (2009). Flavonol 3-O-glycosides series of Vitis vinifera cv. Petit Verdot red wine grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(1):209-219.
Delfan-Hosseini S, Nayebzadeh K, Mirmoghtadaie L, Kavosi M, Marzieh Hosseini S (2017). Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil. Food Chemistry 222:61-66.
European Economic Community (1991). Characteristics of olive and olive pomace oils and their analytical methods, Regulation EEC/2568/1991. Journal of the European Community L248:1-82.
Gutfinger T (1981). Polyphenols in Olive Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 58(11):966-968.
Halbault L, Barbe C, Aroztegui M, De La Torre C (1997). Oxidative stability of semi solid excipient mixtures with corn oil and its implication in the degradation of vitamin A. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 147:31-41.
Hsu SY, Yu SH (2002). Comparisons on 11 plant oil fat substitutes for low-fat kung-wans. Journal of Food Engineering 51:215-220.
Jiao J, Li ZG, Gai QY, Li XJ, Wei FY, Fu YJ, Ma W (2014). Microwave-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from pumpkin seeds and evaluation of its physicochemical properties, fatty acid compositions and antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry 147:17-24.
Martinez ML, Penci MC, Ixtaina V, Ribotta PD, Maestri D (2013). Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of walnut oil under different storage conditions. Food Science and Technology 51:44-50.
Mínguez-Mosquera MI, Rejano L, Gandul B, Sanchez AH, Garrido J (1991). Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 68:332-336.
Mitra P, Ramaswamy HS, Chang KS (2009). Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide and physicochemical properties of the oil. Journal of Food Engineering 95:208-213.
Murkovic M, Piironen V, Lampi, AM, Kraushofer T, Sontag G (2004). Changes in chemical composition of pumpkin seeds during roasting process for production of pumpkin seed oil (Part 1: non-volatile compounds). Food Chemistry 84:359-365.
Nawirska-Olszanska A, Kita A, Biesiada A, Sokol-Letowska A, Kucharska AZ (2013). Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars. Food Chemistry 139:155-161.
Nederal Nakic S, Petrovic M, Vincek D, Pukec D, Skevin D, Kraljic K, Obranovic M (2014). Variance of quality parameters and fatty acid composition in pumpkin seed oil during three crop seasons. Industrial Crops and Products 60:15-21.
Nederal Nakic S, Rade D, Skevin D, Strucelj D, Mokrovcak Z, Bartolic M (2006). Chemical characteristics of oils from naked and husk seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108:936-943.
Nishimura M, Ohkawara T, Sato H, Takeda H, Nishihira J (2014). Pumpkin seed oil extracted from Cucurbita maxima improves urinary disorder in Human overactive. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 4:72-74.
Nyam KL, Tan CP, Lai OM, Long K, Che ManYB (2009). Physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of selected seed oils. Food Science and Technology 42:1396-1403.
O’Brien RD (2009). Fats and oils: Formulations and processing for applications. Boca Raton.
Oueslati I, Anniva C, Daoued D, Tsimidou MZ, Zarrouk M (2009). Virgin olive oil (VOO) production in Tunisia: the commercial potential of the major olive varieties from the arid Tataouine zone. Food Chemistry 112:733-741.
Qi Q (2012). Study on extraction of pumpkin seed oil by aqueous enzymatic method. Journal of Anhui Agriculture Science 40:7410-7413.
Rabrenovic BB, Dimic EB, Novakovic MM, Tesevic VV, Basic ZN (2014). The most important bioactive components of cold pressed oil from different pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. Food Science and Technology 55(2):521-527.
Rezig L, Chouaibi M, Msaada, K, Hamdi S (2012). Chemical composition and profile characterisation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oil. Industrial Crops and Products 37:82-87.
Salgin U, Korkmaz H (2011). A green separation process for recovery of healthy oil from pumpkin seed. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 58:239-248.
Seymen M, Uslu N, Türkmen Ö, Al Juhaimi F, Özcan MM (2016). Chemical compositions and mineral contents of some hull-less pumpkin seed and oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 93:1095-1099.
STATISTICA (1998). Statsoft, Inc, Tulsa, OK, USA.
Stevenson DG, Eller FJ, Wang L, Jane JL, Wang T, Inglett GE (2007). Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:4005-4013.
Türkmen Ö, Özcan MM, Seymen M, Paksoy M, Uslu N, Fidan S (2017). Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid compositions of some edible pumpkin seed genotypes and oils. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies 23(4):229-235.
Vázquez-Roncero A, Janer Del Valle C, Janer Del Valle ML (1973). Determinación de los polifenoles totales del aceite de oliva. Grasas Aceites 24:350-357.
Xanthopoulou MN, Nomikos T, Fragopoulou E, Antonopoulou S (2009). Antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities of pumpkin seed extracts. Food Research International 42:641-646.
Younis YMH, Ghirmay S, Al-Shihry SS (2000). African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil. Phytochemistry 54:71-75.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.