Phytochemical and Antioxidant Diversity in Fruits of Currant (Ribes spp.)
Currant successfully grown in a wide area in Turkey due to its environmental plasticity. The aim of this study is to determine variations in phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity from certain currant cultivars and genotypes commercially grown in Turkey. Fruit samples taken from two red currant cultivars (‘Red Lake’, ‘Rovada’) and four black (‘S. Nigrum’, ‘Tokat 2’, ‘Tokat 3’ and ‘Tokat 4’) and the genotype 1310 (red currant) were subjected to analysis for phenolic compounds (protocatechuic, vanillic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, phloridzin and ferulic acid), organic acids (citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid), vitamin C, antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC] assay) and sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose). Results showed that phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities statistically varied among currant cultivars and genotype (p<0.05). Caffeic acid was determined only in the genotype 1301. Ellagic acid (1.680 mg/100 g), gallic acid (2.022 mg/100 g), rutin (4.649 mg/100 g), catechin (8.005 mg/100 g) and chlorogenic acid (2.721 mg/100 g) were found the highest values in ‘Tokat 3’, ‘Red Lake’, ‘Tokat 3’, 1310 and ‘S. Nigrum’, respectively. Citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid were dominant among organic acids for all cultivars and the genotype 1310. Contents of glucose and fructose among sugars were measured to be higher than content of sucrose for all cultivars and the genotype. The highest antioxidant capacity was detected in cultivar of ‘Rovada’ and the genotype 1310.
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