Exogenous Carbon Magnifies Mycorrhizal Effects on Growth Behaviour and Sucrose Metabolism in Trifoliate Orange
Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) need the carbohydrates from host plants for its growth, whereas it is not clear whether exogenous carbon affects mycorrhizal roles. A two-chambered rootbox was divided into root + hyphae chamber and hyphae chamber (free of roots) by 37-μm nylon mesh, in which trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings and Funneliformis mosseae were applied into root + hyphae chamber, and exogenous 40 mmol/L fructose, glucose and sucrose was applied to hyphae chamber. Application of exogenous sugars dramatically elevated root mycorrhizal colonization. Sole arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and root morphology than non-AMF treatment. Mycorrhiza-improved plant growth and root modification could be enlarged by exogenous carbon, especially fructose. Exogenous carbon markedly increased root fructose, glucose and sucrose accumulation in mycorrhizal plants, especially sucrose. Exogenous fructose significantly reduced leaf and root sucrose synthase (SS) activity in synthesis direction and increased them in cleavage direction in AMF seedlings. Exogenous glucose and sucrose heavily elevated root SS activity of mycorrhizal seedlings in synthesis and cleavage direction and reduced leaf SS activity in synthesis direction. Leaf acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) activities of mycorrhizal seedlings were decreased by exogenous carbon, except sucrose in NI. Exogenous fructose significantly increased root AI and NI activity in mycorrhizal plants. These results implied that mycorrhizal inoculation represented positive effects on plant growth, root morphology, and sucrose metabolism of trifoliate orange, which could be magnified further by exogenous carbon, especially fructose.
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