Molecular Identification of Pm4 Powdery Mildew Resistant Gene in Oat
The selection of specific plants with desirable traits supported by molecular markers is one of the most important tools in modern breeding programs, which lead to reduce time and cost of selection. The aim of presented study was identification of dominant markers associated with Pm4 powdery mildew resistant gene in oat. To identify dominant silicoDArT markers for Pm4 gene, F2 mapping population ‘Av1860’ × ‘Fuchs’ were analyzed using DArTseq methodology. Among obtained 46 230 silicoDArT markers, 126 markers were high correlated with resistance to powdery mildew in oat conditioned by Pm4 gene. Among selected markers, 48 sequences have been chosen for potential conversion into specific STS markers. Finally, only 20 were suitable for primer design. As a result, 5 converted markers amplified expected products in resistant bulks, 3 of them segregated according to resistance in the whole population and shoved high correlation coefficient between marker and phenotype observation. Converted markers based on PCR could be used for identification of Pm4 gene in oat. Obtained results confirm the possibility of converting silicoDArT markers into PCR-based technique, which can be used in marker assisted selection (MAS).
Al-Beyroutiova M, Sabo M, Sleziak P, Dusinsky R, Bircak E, Hauptvogel P, Kilian A, Svec M (2016). Evolutionary relationships in the genus Secale revealed by DArTseq DNA polymorphism. Plant Systematics and Evolution 302:1083-1091.
Aung T, Thomas H (1978). The structure of breeding behaviour of a translocation involving the transfer of mildew resistance from Avena barbata Pott. into the cultivated oat. Euphytica 27:731-739.
Aung T, Thomas H, Jones T (1977). The transfer of the gene for mildew resistance from Avena barbata (4x) into the cultivated oat A. sativa by an induced translocation. Euphytica 26:623-632.
Bayles RA (1997). Disease development – the interaction of variety resistance and pathogen. Aspects of Applied Biology 50:249-254.
Bennett FGA (1984). Resistance to powdery mildew in wheat: a review of its use in agriculture and breeding programmes. Plant Pathology 33:279-300.
Bewick V, Cheek L, Ball J (2004). Statistics review 8: qualitative data – tests of association. Critical Care 8:46-53.
Chhetri M, Bariana H, Wong D, Sohail Y, Hayden M, Bansal U (2017). Development of robust molecular markers for marker-assisted selection of leaf rust resistance gene Lr23 in common and durum wheat breeding programs. Molecular Breeding 37(3):21.
Chong J, Reimer E, Somers D, Aung T, Penner GA (2004). Development of sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers for resistance gene Pc94 to crown rust in oat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 26:89-96.
Clifford BC (1995). Diseases, pest and disorders of oat. In: Welch RW (Ed). The Oat Crop. Chapman & Hall, London pp 252-278.
Collard BCY, Jahufer MZZ, Brouwer JB. Pang ECK (2005). An introduction to markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and marker-assisted selection for crop improvement: the basic concepts. Euphytica 142:169-196.
Collard BCY, Mackill DJ (2008). Marker-assisted selection: an approach for precision plant breeding in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences 363:557-572.
dos Santos JPR, Pires LPM, de Castro Vasconcellos RC, Pereira GS, Von Pinho RG, Balestre M (2016). Genomic selection to resistance to Stenocarpella maydis in maize lines using DArTseq markers. BMC Genetics 17-86.
Ekstein P, Rossnagel B, Scoles G (2008). DArTs without the DArT board: the application of individual DArT markers to marker-assisted selection. The 8th International Oat Conference, June 28th-July 2nd, 2008, Minneapolis, MN. Session VI - Plant Breeding, Germplasm Utilization and Cereal Genomics - Poster VI-9. https://wheat.pw.usda.gov/GG2/ Avena/event/IOC2008/IOCposter/VI-9_Eckstein.pdf.
Fennimore SA, Nyquist WE, Shaner GE, Doerge RW, Foley ME (1999). A genetic model and molecular markers for wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99:711-718.
Hsam SLK, Pederina E, Gorde S, Zeller FJ (1998). Genetic studies of powdery mildew resistance in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.). II. Cultivars and breeding lines grown in Northern and Eastern Europe. Hereditas 129:227-230.
Hsam SLK, Peters N, Paderina EV, Felsenstein F, Oppitz K, Zeller FJ (1997). Genetic studies of powdery mildew resistance in common oat (Avena sativa L.). I. Cultivars and breeding lines grown in Western Europe and North America. Euphytica 96:421-427.
Jones IT (1977). The effect on grain yield of adult plant resistance to mildew in oats. Annals of Applied Biology 86:267-277.
Jones IT, Jones ERL (1979). Mildew of oats. UK Cereal Pathogen Virulence Survey 1978. Annual Reports pp 59-63.
Kowalczyk K, Hsam SLK, Zeller FJ (2004). Identification of oat powdery mildew resistance group 2 (OMR2) and Polish common oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars. Workshop “Resistance of cereals to biotic stresses”, Radzików, Poland 28.11-01.12.2004:122-125.
Lawes DA, Hayes JD (1965). The effect of mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. avenae) on spring oats. Plant Pathology 14:125-128.
McCartney CA, Stonehouse RG, Rossnagel BG, Eckstein PE, Scoles GJ, Zatorski T, Beattie AD, Chong J (2011). Mapping of the oat crown rust resistance gene Pc91. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 122:317-325.
Milach SCK, Rines HW, Philips RL (1997). Molecular genetic mapping of dwarfing genes in oat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95:783-790.
Milczarski P, Hanek M, Tyrka M, Stojalowski S (2016). The application of GBS markers for extending the dense genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.) and localization of the Rfc1 gene restoring male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. Journal of Applied Genetics 57:439-451.
Okon S (2012). Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using host-pathogen tests. Acta Agrobotanica 65(3):63-68.
Okon S (2015). Effectiveness of resistant genes to powdery mildew in oat. Crop Protection 74:48-50.
Okon S, Kowalczyk K (2012a). Deriving isolates of powdery mildew in common oat and using them to identify selected genes of resistance. Acta Agrobotanica 65(2):155-160.
Okon S, Kowalczyk K (2012b). Identification of SCAR markers linked to resistance to powdery mildew on common oats (Avena sativa L.). Journal of Plant Disease and Protection 119(5/6):179-181.
Okon S, Ociepa T, Paczos-Grzeda E, Kowalczyk K (2016). Analysis of the level of resistance Polish oat varieties (Avena sativa L.) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis DC. F. sp. avenae Em. Marchal.). Annales UMCS 71(3):51-60.
Orr W, Molnar SJ (2008). Development of PCR-based SCAR and CAPS markers linked to ?-glucan and protein content QTL regions in oat. Genome 51:421-425.
Penner GA, Chong J, Levesque-Lemay M, Molnar SJ, Fedak G (1993). Identification of RAPD marker linked to the oat stem rust gene Pg3. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 85:702-705.
Rajhaty T (1963). A standard karyotype for Avena sativa. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 5:127-132.
Ren R, Ray R, Li P, Xu J, Zhang M, Liu G, Yao X, Kilian A, Yanget X (2015). Construction of a high-density DArTseq SNP-based genetic map and identification of genomic regions with segregation distortion in a genetic population derived from a cross between feral and cultivated-type watermelon. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 290:1457-1470.
Roderick HW, Clifford BC (1995). Variation in adult plant resistance to powdery mildew in spring oats under field and laboratory conditions. Plant Pathology 44:366-373.
Roderick HW, Jones ERL, Šebesta J (2000). Resistance to oat powdery mildew in Britain and Europe: a review. Annals of Applied Biology 136:85-91.
Schwarzbach E, Smith IM (1988). Erysiphe graminis DC. In: Smith IM et al. (Eds). European Handbook of Plant Diseases. Blackwell, Oxford.
Sebesta J, Kummer M, Roderick HW, Hoppe HD, Cervenka J, Swierczewski A, Muller K (1991). Breeding oats for resistance to rusts and powdery mildew in central Europe. Ochrana Rostlin 27:229-238.
Sebesta J, Roderick HW, Jones TI, Jones ERL, Herrmenn M, Zwatz B, Corazza L (1997). The occurrence of oat powdery mildew in Europe and effectiveness of sources of resistance. Petria 7:121-140.
Shahin A, Arens P, Heusden S, van Tuyl JM (2009). Conversion of molecular markers linked to Fusarium and virus resistance in Asiatic lily hybrids. Acta Horticulturae 836:131-136.
StatSoft Inc. (2017). STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 13.1. www.statsoft.com.
Wight CP, O’Donoughue LS, Chong J, Tinker NA, Molnar SJ (2005). Discovery, localization and sequence characterization of molecular markers for the crown rust resistance genes Pc38, Pc39 and Pc48 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.). Molecular Breeding 4:349-361.
Wight CP, Tinker NA, Kianian SF, Sorrells ME, O’Donoughue LS, Hoffman D, … Molnar SJ (2003). A molecular marker map in ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ hexaploid oat (Avena ssp.) enhanced by additional markers and a robust framework. Genome 46:28-47.
Yu J, Herrmann M (2006). Inheritance and mapping of a powdery mildew resistance gene introgressed from Avena macrostachya in cultivated oat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113:429-437.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.