Management of Apple Scab and Powdery Mildew Using Bicarbonate Salts and Other Alternative Organic Products with Fungicide Effect in Apple Cultivars
AbstractThe control of apple scab and powdery mildew is a challenge for organic fruit growing. Bicarbonate salts are already consecrate in reducing the attack of scab and powdery mildew in organic apple culture. In the current study the influence of some products accepted in organic apple production to control scab and powdery mildew (potasium bicarbonate, lime sulphur, wettable sulphur, potassium silicate, cooper ammonium-phosphate, potassium bicarbonate + potassium silicate, potassium bicarbonate + wettable sulphur) in comparison with untreated control, were used. The biological material was represented by three scab resistant cultivars (‘Luna’, ‘Topaz’ and ‘Sirius’) and three scab susceptible cultivars (‘Elstar’, ‘Pinova’ and ‘Golden Delicious’). The experiments were carried out during 2014-2016 at Steluța LTD, Cluj-Napoca, N.W. Romania, as a bifactorial experiment arranged in randomized blocks. The trees were planted in 2011 at a density of 3,175 trees/ha. Depending of the year, a number of 18-22 treatments were made annually after each rain. It can be concluded that the combination of potassium bicarbonate + wettable sulphur significantly reduced the attack degree of scab and powdery mildew on leaves and fruits and increased the yield of the scab-susceptible and scab resistant cultivars. Good results were obtained in the case of treatment with potassium bicarbonate with potassium silicate, potassium bicarbonate and cooper ammonium phosphate. The treatments with the products used in the experiments did not register symptoms of phytotoxicity on leaves or fruits, except lime sulphur and wettable sulphur and cooper ammonium phosphates.
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