Assessment of Genetic Relationship among Male and Female Fig Genotypes Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers
Fig (Ficus carica L.) is a traditional crop in Turkey and widely cultivated around the Mediterranean areas. The gynodioecious fig species is present in two sexual forms, i.e. the domesticated fig (female tree) and the caprifig (male tree). Caprifigs are crucial for high quality fig production and breeding while, the studies on assessment of genetic relationship among caprifigs is limited. The aim of this study was to determine genetic diversity among 45 caprifigs and 2 female figs collected from four provinces in Marmara and Aegean Sea Regions of Turkey using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this work, 24 SSR markers were tested, one was monomorphic and the remaining markers amplified 82 alleles. The number of polymorphic alleles per SSR marker ranged from 2 to 7. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) differed from 0.18 to 0.76 and expected heterozygosity (He) ranged between 0.24 and 0.81. The polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.42 to 0.98. A UPGMA analysis based on Dice similarity matrix clustered fig genotypes into two main groups and similarly, STRUCTURE analysis placed fig genotypes into two different gene pools (K=2). Fig genotypes collected from the same region were not clustered together in a group indicating that the fig genotypes did not cluster on the basis of their collection sites. Our results demonstrated that caprifigs and female figs are not genetically distinct and they clustered together in a group. All fig genotypes had distinct SSR marker profiles suggesting that there were no synonyms or homonyms. These results revealed a high genetic variation among fig genotypes and 23 SSR markers were enough to discriminate all fig genotypes analysed in this study demonstrating that SSR marker system is suitable for genetic analysis in figs.
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