Fruit and Oil Characteristics of Olive Candidate Cultivars from Turkey
This is the first study in Turkey that evaluated olive fruit and oil characteristics of 23 cultivar candidates selected among 393 olive genotypes, on the bases of agronomical characteristics; the candidate cultivars were obtained by cross breeding between standard cultivars ('Gemlik', 'Edinciksu', 'Uslu', 'Tavşan Yüreği', 'Karamürselsu') and foreign cultivars ('Lucques', 'Belle d'Espagne' and 'Manzanilla'). Fruit traits such as fruit weight, flesh to seed ratio, fruit and seed size, as well as oil characteristics such as moisture, oil content, specific absorption at ultraviolet light, free acid content, peroxide value, chlorophyll and fatty acid composition were determined. Fruits and oils of intensely cultivated 'Gemlik' and 'Ayvalık' olive cultivars were also analyzed to compare them with the new candidate cultivars. According to the oil content, 'GE067' (23.30%), 'GE181' (23.97%), 'GE366' (22.52%), 'GE417' (22.16%), 'GT009' (24.14%), 'GT014' (21.02%), 'GU247' (22.48%), 'GU320' (27.15%) and 'GU434' (21.89%) gave better results, thus having good potential for registration as new cultivars for oil production. 'GE366' and 'GU434' were determined as the best cultivar candidates for producing dual purpose olives (table olives and oil). 'GE363' had the best fatty acid composition, which is an important feature in terms of oxidative stability and disease prevention.
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