Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cultivated Conventionally and Derived from In vitro Cultures
Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) is a medicinal plant commonly known for its wide biological activity. In many countries different parts of this plant are used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension and for menstrual regulation. Due to the ability of production of alkaloids, which can be applied in cancer therapy, is still extensively investigated. Two of the most valuable alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine) are present in C. roseus in very low concentrations. Micropropagation is promising technique used to enhance the level of important secondary metabolites. The main objective of present study was alkaloids extraction from plants cultivated conventionally and derived from in vitro cultures. In this order the aerial parts of periwinkle were extracted with 96% ethanol at room temperature (method I) and heated with 96% ethanol at 55 °C for 90 minutes (method II). The obtained mixtures of different indole alkaloids were analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Analysis revealed the presence of 15 alkaloids, among which vindoline, vindorosine, isovindolinine and ajmalicine were the most abundant. The obtained results indicated that the propagation method had a significant effect on the percentage content of alkaloids in C. roseus herb. Plants derived from in vitro cultures were richer in vindorosine and vindoline, while conventionally cultivated – in tetrahydroalstonine and ajmalicine. Moreover, in case of isovindolinine, vindolinine and ajmalicine, extraction at 55 °C was more effective, while for pericyclivine – maceration at room temperature. Interestingly, the pericyclivine was not detected in the mixture of alkaloids obtained from periwinkle herb by the extraction at 55 °C.
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