Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anticancer Properties and Toxicity Evaluation of Leaf Essential Oil of <i>Cupressus sempervirens</i>
The essential oil isolated by hydro-distillation from Cupressus sempervirens (Cypress) leaves was analysed by GC-MS and tested for antioxidant and in vitro as well as in vivo anticancer activities. In addition, the toxicity effect of the essential oil was studied using normal Swiss mice. Eighteen components of Cypress essential oil were identified and the main essential oil components were Î±-pinene (29.21%), Î´3-carene (18.92%), Î±-cedrol (12.25%), Î±-terpinolene (7.66%) and limonene (5.50%). Cupressus sempervirens essential oil was able to reduce the stable, purple-colored radical DPPH into yellow-colored DPPH reaching 50% of reduction with IC50 value = 290.09 Î¼g mL-1. The in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil was studied against two human promyelocytic leukemia cell lines (HL-60 and NB4) and experimental animals model cancer cell line (EACC). Cypress essential oil exerted the highest cytotoxic activity with a LC50 of 333.79 Âµg mL-1 against NB4 followed by HL-60 and EACC cell lines (LC50 of 365.41, and 372.43 Âµg mL-1, respectively). Regarding in vivo anticancer study, pre-initiation treatment with the essential oil was more effective than initiation and post-initiation treatments respectively on the tumor (EACC) transplanted female mice (increase lifespan (%), decrease total EACC number and increase dead cells). In toxicity study, serum urea, transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. The results obtained from this study showed that the Cypress essential oil possesses antioxidant and anticancer properties, taking into consideration its mild toxicity.
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