An Evaluation of the Use of Calcium, Potassium and Silicon for the Management of Diaphorina citri Populations in Tahiti Lime Trees

Augusto RAMÍREZ-GODOY, Ginna PUENTES-PÉREZ, Hermann RESTREPO-DÍAZ

Abstract


The recent appearance of the disease known as huanglongbing (HLB) in Colombia has caused the demand for alternative control methods for Diaphorina citri (i.e., the disease vector). Specifically, the use of nutrients, such as calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and silicon (Si), may provide some degree of plant defense against herbivory. One set of experiments (in the form of two separate experiments) was conducted on two different farms in the municipality of Jerusalén to study the effects of foliar and soil applications of nutrients (Ca, K and Si) on controlling the population dynamics of Diaphorina citri. Tahiti lime trees were treated as follows: i) untreated trees (absolute control); ii) clothianidin at a dose of 50 g active ingredient per hectare (chemical control); iii) Ca, K and Si foliar applications (at doses of 3 mL, 3 g and 2 mL of the commercial compound used per liter of H2O, respectively); and iv) soil application of potassium nitrate and potassium silicate (1 kg of commercial fertilizer per tree). Foliar sprays were carried out at 0 and 4 weeks after treatment (WAT) began; meanwhile, soil fertilization occurred at the beginning of the trial (i.e., 0 WAT). The results showed that differences were observed only in adults at 7 WAT, and the foliar calcium and silicon applications resulted in the lowest number of individuals (i.e., 1.13 per flush) compared with untreated trees (i.e., 3.13 per flush). The foliar clothianidin, Ca, Si and K sprays also affected the total number of nymphs. Additionally, Tahiti lime trees treated with either silicon or insecticide had fewer eggs than did trees in the other treatments. The use of these mineral nutrients showed a similar efficacy when compared to clothianidin, indicating that these mineral nutrients can enhance plant resistance. These observations suggest that foliar applications of K, Ca and Si could be considered as complementary tools within an integrated management program for D. citri in Colombia.


Keywords


Asian citrus psyllid; foliar fertilization; plant resistance; percentage of efficacy; mineral nutrients

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almeida GD, Pratissoli D, Zanuncio J C, Vicentini VB, Holtz AM, Serrão JE (2009). Calcium silicate and organic mineral fertilizer increase the resistance of tomato plants to Frankliniella schultzei. Phytoparasitica 37:225-230.

Amtmann A, Troufflard S, Armengaud P (2008). The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiologia Plantarum 133:682-691.

Boina DR, Bloomquist JR (2015). Chemical control of the Asian citrus psyllid and of Huanglongbing disease in citrus. Pest Management Science 71(6):808-823.

Bonani JP, Fereres A, Appezzato-da-Gloria B, Garzo E, Miranda MP, Lopes, JRS (2010). Characterization of electrical penetration graphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama in sweet orange seedlings. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 134(1):35-49.

Canales E, Coll Y, Hernandez I, Portieles R, Garcia MR, Lopez Y, ... Borras-Hidalgo O (2016). ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’, causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing, is reduced by treatment with brassinosteroids. PloS One 11(1):e0146223.

Dia de Almeida G, Pratissoli D, Zanuncio JC, Vicentini VB, Holtz AM, Serrão JE (2008). Calcium silicate and organic mineral fertilizer applications reduce phytophagy by Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on eggplants (Solanum melongena L.). Interciencia 33(11):835-838.

Garzo EG, Bonani JP, Lopes JRS, Fereres A (2011). Morphological description of the mouthparts of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Arthropod Structure and Development 41(1):79-86.

Gottwald TR (2010). Current epidemiological understanding of citrus huanglongbing. Annual Review of Phytopathology 48:119-139.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984). Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto.

Hall DG, Richardson ML, Ammar ED, Halbert SE (2013). Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 146:207-223.

Henderson CF, Tilton EW (1955). Tests with acaricides against the brown wheat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology 48:157-161.

Hua KH, Wang HC, Chung RS, Hsu JC (2015). Calcium carbonate nanoparticles can enhance plant nutrition and insect pest tolerance. Journal of Pest Science 40(4):208-213.

ICA (2015). Resolución 2390 de 2015: “Por medio de la cual se declara el estado de emergencia fitosanitaria en el territorio nacional por la presencia de adultos de Diaphorina citri infectados con la bacteria de la enfermedad del HLB de los cítricos” [Resolution 2390 of 2015: “By means of which the state of phytosanitary emergency in the national territory is declared by the presence of adults of Diaphorina citri infected with the bacteria of the disease of the HLB of citrus fruits”]. Retrieved 2017 September 12 from http://www.ica.gov.co/Normatividad/.

ICA (2017). Resolución número 00007109 de 2017, por medio de la cual se declara el estado de emergencia fitosanitaria en el territorio nacional por la presencia de la enfermedad conocida como Huanglongbing (HLB) de los cítricos [Resolution number 00007109 of 2017, by means of which the state of phytosanitary emergency in the national territory is declared by the presence of the disease known as Huanglongbing (HLB) of citrus fruits]. Retrieved 2017 September 12 from http://www.ica.gov.co/Normatividad/.

Jagoueix S, Bove JM, Garnier M (1994). The phloem-limited bacterium of greening disease of citrus is a member of alpha subdivision of Proteobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 44:379-386.

Marschner P (2012). Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London.

Nakata PA (2015). An assessment of engineered calcium oxalate crystal formation on plant growth and development as a step toward evaluating its use to enhance plant defense. Plos One 10(10):e0141982.

Nikpay A, Nejadian ES (2014). Field applications of silicon-based fertilizers against sugarcane yellow mite Oligonychus sacchari. Sugar Tech 16(3):319-324.

Orduz-Rodríguez JO, Monroy HJ, Fischer G (2010). Phenological behavior of ‘Arrayana’ mandarin in the piedmont of the Meta department, Colombia. Agronomia Colombiana 28(1):63-70.

Orduz-Rodríguez JO, Garzon DC (2012). Alternate bearing and phenology of ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) in the lowland wet tropics of Colombia. Corpoica Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria 13(2):136-144.

Pluke RWH, Qureshi JA, Stansly PA (2008). Citrus flushing patterns, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) populations and parasitism by Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Puerto Rico. Florida Entomologist 91(1):36-42.

Ranger CM, Singh AP, Frantz JM, Canas L, Locke JC, Reding ME, Vorsa N (2009). Influence of silicon on resistance of Zinnia elegans to Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 38(1):129-136.

Reynolds OL, Keeping MG, Meyer JH (2009). Silicon-augmented resistance of plants to herbivorous insects: a review. Annals of Applied Biology 155:171-186.

Reynolds OL, Padula MP, Zeng R, Gurr GM (2016). Silicon: potential to promote direct and indirect effects on plant defense against arthropod pests in agriculture. Frontiers in Plant Science 7:744 doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00744.

Santivanez T, Mora Aguilera G, Diaz Pinilla G, Lopez Arrollo JI, Vernal Hurtado P (2013). Citrus. Marco estratégico para la gestión regional del Huanglongbing en América Latina y el Caribe. FAO, Santiago de Chile.

Schwachtje J, Baldwin IT (2008). Why does herbivore attack reconfigure primary metabolism?. Plant Physiology 146(3):845-851.

Sétamou M, Flores D, French JV, Hall DG (2008). Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus. Journal of Economy Entomology 101:1478-1487.

Staley JT, Stafford DB, Green ER, Leather SR, Rossiter JT, Poppy GM, Wright DJ (2011). Plant nutrient supply determines competition between phytophagous insects. Proceedings of The Royal Society B 278:718-724.

Tsagkarakis AE, Rogers ME, Spann TA (2012). Applications of plant growth regulators to container-grown citrus trees affect the biology and behavior of the Asian Citrus Psyllid. Journal of The American Society for Horticultural Science 137(1):3-10.

Vieira DL, Barbosa VO, Oliveira de Souza WC, Gonçalves da Silva J, Malaquias JB, Batista JL (2016). Potassium silicate-induced resistance against blackfly in seedlings of Citrus reticulate. Fruits 71(1):49-55.

Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013). The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14(4):7370-7390.

War AR, Paulraj MG, Ahmad T, Buhroo AA, Hussain B, Ignacimuthu S, Sharma HC (2012). Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores. Plant Signal Behavior 7(10):1306-1320.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/nbha46211152

June 1, 2018: Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca in Scopus – Elsevier CiteScore 2017=0.78, Horticulture; Agronomy and Crop Science; Plant Science


 
http://not-bot-horti-agrobo.blogspot.com/
https://www.facebook.com/NotBotHA
https://twitter.com/NotBotHA