Nutrient Uptake and Utilization and Antioxidants of Fruits in Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Cultivar ‘Autumn Bliss’ in response to Fertilization under Extended Photoperiod

Baiyi AN, Hongxu WEI, Linlin LI, Peng GUO


Annual-fruiting cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) complete its entire cycle of vegetative growth, flowering, and fruiting in one growing season, which has not been well studied in response to treatments of photoperiod and fertilization. In this study, micro-propagated plantlets of ‘Autumn Bliss’ were planted in a greenhouse at Dalian, Northeast China. Some were treated with fertilizers at the rate of 12 g per plant (N-P2O5-K2O, 14-14-14) under extended photoperiod of 17 h with PPFD of 240 μmol m-2 s-1 at dark-time (Pho.+Fert.), while others were treated with longer photoperiod (Pho.) or with the control. Compared to the control, both growth and biomass in shoot part of ‘Autumn Bliss’ were promoted by the Pho.+Fert. treatment, but foliar nutrients declined as the symptom of nutrient dilution. The Pho. treatment had no effect on either growth or nutrient uptake in leaves, resulting in the symptom of nutrient depletion compared to the Control. Soil P availability positively correlated with foliar P concentration but negatively correlated with root length. Only the Pho.+Fert. treatment resulted in the advance of fruiting by two months at July when fruits were measured to have acceptable fruit weight of about 3 g and contents of anthocyanin at ~26.4 mg cyaniding-3-glucoside equiv. 100 g-1 Fw and total phenolic content at ~17.5 mg GAE 100 g-1 Fw.

Full Text:



Bobinaite R, Viškelis P, Venskutonis PR (2012). Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars. Food Chemistry 132:1495-1501.

Carew JG, Mahmood K, Darby J, Hadley P, Battey NH (2001). The effects of low temperatures on the vegetative growth and flowering of the primocane fruiting raspberry ‘Autumn Bliss’. Journal of Horticultural Sciences and Biotechnology 76:264-270.

Carew JG, Mahmood K, Darby J, Hadley P, Bttey NH (2003). The effect of temperature, photosynthetic photon flux density, and photoperiod on the vegetative growth and flowering of ‘Autumn Bliss’ strawberry. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science 128:291-296.

Campos-Mota L, Baca-Castillo GA, Jaén-Contreras D, Muratalla-Lúay A, Acosta-Hernández R (2004). Fertirrigation and mycorrhiza in red raspberry cultured on tepetate. Agrociencia 38:75-83.

Dai HP, Liao SW (2011). The cultivation trial of three annual-fruiting red raspberries in Shenyang, Liaoning, China. China Fruits 3:40-43 (in Chinese).

Dean DM, Zebarth BJ, Kowlalenko CG, Paul JW, Chipperfield K (2000). Poultry manure effects on soil nitrogen processes and nitrogen accumulation in red raspberry. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 80:849-860.

DeGomez TE, Martin LW, Breen PJ (1986). Effect of nitrogen and pruning on primocane fruiting red raspberry ‘Amity’. HortScience 21:441-442.

Dragisic Maksimovic JJ Milivojevic MM, Nikolic MD, Maksimovic VM (2013). Profiling antioxidant activity of two primocane fruiting red raspberry cultivars (Autumn bliss and Polka). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 31:173-179.

Guo P, Jin H, Wei HX, Li LL, Bao YJ (2016). Fine root growth and water use efficiency in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Gongong No. 1) planted along a salinity gradient in coastal area of Dalian, Northeast China. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 62:164-172.

Häkkinen S, Heinonen M, Kärenlampi S, Mykkänen H, Ruuskanen J, Törrönen R (1999). Screening of selected flavonoids and phenolic acids in 19 berries. Food Research International 32:345-353.

Hawkins BJ (2007). Family variation in nutritional and growth traits in Douglas-fir seedlings. Tree Physiology 27:911-919.

Heide OM, Sønsteby A (2011). Physiology of flowering and dormancy regulation in annual- and biennial-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) – a review. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 86:433-442.

Horuz A, Korkmaz A, Karaman MR, Dizman M, Turan M (2013). The evaluation of leaf nutrient contents and element ratios of different raspberry varieties. Journal of Food and Agricultural Environment 11:588-593.

Jones AT, McGavin WJ (1998). Infectibility and sensitivity of UK raspberry, blackberry and hybrid berry cultivars to Rubus viruses. Annals of Applied Biology 132:239-251.

Kowalenko CG (2006). The effect of nitrogen and boron fertilizer applications on Willamette red raspberry growth, and on applied and other nutrients in the plant and soil over two growing seasons. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86:213-215.

Lockshin LS, Elfving DC (1981). Flowering response of ‘Heritage’ red raspberry to temperature and nitrogen. HortScience 16:527-528.

Neocleous D, Papadopoulos I, Vasilakakis M (2005). Investigating the possibility of fruiting primocane raspberries for off-season production in Cyprus. European Journal of Horticultural Science 70:89-95.

Neocleous D, Vasilakakis M (2007). Effects of NaCl stress on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’). Scientia Horticulture 112:282-289.

Oliveira PB, Oliveira CM, Monteiro AA (2004) Pruning date and cane density affect primocane development and yield of ‘Autumn Bliss’ red raspberry. HortScience 39:520-524.

Pantelidis GE, Vasilakakis M, Manganaris GA, Diamantidis G (2007). Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currants, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry 102:777-783.

Sønsteby A, Heide OM (2008). Environmental control of growth and flowering of Rubus idaeus L. cv. Glen Ample. Scientia Horticulture 117:249-256.

Sønsteby A, Heide OM (2009). Effects of photoperiod and temperature on growth and flowering of the annual (primocane) fruiting raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar ‘Polka’. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 84:439-446.

Sønsteby A, Heide OM (2012). Effects of photoperiod and temperature on growth, flowering and fruit yield in annual-fruiting red raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus L.). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 77:97-108.

Sønsteby A, Stavang JA, Heide OM (2013). Production of high-yielding raspberry long canes: The way to 3 kg of fruit per cane. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 88:591-599.

Strik BC, Bryla DR (2015). Uptake and partitioning of nutrients in blackberry and raspberry and evaluating plant nutrient status for accurate assessment of fertilizer requirements. HortTechnology 25:452-459.

Takahama U, Oniki T (2000). Flavonoids and some other phenolics as substrates of peroxidase: physiological significance of the redox reactions. Journal of Plant Research 113:301-309.

USDA (2015). Noncitrus fruits and nuts: 2014 Preliminary summary. National Agricultural Statistics Service web. Retrieved 2015 February 15 from

Wang YL, Almvik M, Clarke N, Eich-Greatorex S, Oggaard AF, Krogstad T, Lambers H, Clarke JL (2015). Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits. AoB Plants 7:plv097.

Weber C (2012). Raspberry variety review. Berry Resources, Cornell Fruit, Cornell cooperative extension, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University. Retrieved 2012 June 3 from

Wei HX, Ren J, Zhou JH (2013). Effect of exponential fertilization on growth and nutritional status in Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus [Thunb.] D. Don) seedlings cultured in natural and prolonged photoperiods. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 59:933-941.

Wei HX, Xu CY, Ma LY, Duan J, Jiang LN, Ren J (2014). Effect of late-season fertilization on nutrient reserves and carbohydrate accumulation in bareroot Larix olgensis seedlings. Journal of Plant Nutrition 37:279-293.

Wang Z, Ma LY, Jia ZK, Wei HX, Duan J (2016). Interactive effects of irrigation and exponential fertilization on nutritional characteristics in Populus × euramericana cv. ‘74/76’ cuttings in an open-air nursery in Beijing, China. Journal of Forestry Research 27:569-582.

Xu YC, Zhang LL, Zhang QH, Wang YH, Li L, Dong FX (2015). Effect of pinching and pruning on retarding cultivation of primocane-fruiting red raspberry. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University 46:50-55 (in Chinese with English abstract).

Yin XG, Olesen JE, Wang M, Öztürk I, Zhang HL, Chen F (2016). Impacts and adaptation of the cropping systems to climate change in the Northeast Farming region of China. European Journal of Agronomy 78:60-72.

Zhu KY, Liu HC, Wei HX, Zhou JH, Zou QC, Ma GY, Zhang JQ (2016) Prediction of nutrient leaching from culture of containerized Buddhist pine and Japanese maple seedlings exposed to extended photoperiod. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 18:425-434.


June 1, 2017: Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca in CiteScore rank (Scopus – Elsevier) 28/66 in Horticulture